The yellow fever virus, endemic in tropical areas, has broken out in Brazil in a sylvatic (jungle) yellow fever form.
North P&I Club said that local correspondents in Brazil, Proinde P&I, had issued a circular detailing the nature of the virus and how to avoid infection.
Typical symptoms appear after three to six days and include fever, muscle pain, intense headaches, shivers, loss of appetite and nausea. It is reported that about 15% of patients progress into a more toxic phase of the infection, which has symptoms such as high fever, jaundice and abdominal pain with vomiting. Half of the infected people who enter the more severe form of the infection die within a couple of weeks.
Vaccination is the only adequate defence against the yellow fever virus. The World Health Organisation (WHO) recommends the yellow fever vaccine for all travellers to Brazil.
Proinde P&I’s advice includes:
· Try to stay indoors in screened or in air‐conditioned rooms with doors and windows closed
· If not in an air‐conditioned room, sleep under permethrin‐treated bed nets
· Wear long‐sleeved shirts and trousers, ideally light‐coloured and permethrin‐treated covering as much of the body as possible
· Use an suitable insect repellent on exposed skin and clothing as directed on the product label
· Be aware of yellow fever symptoms and seek immediate medical care should signs of the infection develop.